WHO ARE PATHANS AND WHO ARE ARYANS:
The following text is by Ali Reza, an Iranian national, in response to Mr Najeebâ€™s comments about Pashtuns:
Najeeb had argued:
â€œPathans believe that they are all descended from a common ancestor,
Qais. He is said to have met the Prophet Muhammad. The prophet gave Qais
the name "Pthun, and Qais was to take Islam back to his home. One of
Qais#039;s sons was name Afghana, who had four sons. Every Pathan traces its
descent from one of these four sonsâ€
BUT HISTORY SAYS THE FOLLOWING: [ACCORDING TO ALI REZA]
Variations on the word "Afghan" may go back as early as a 3rd-century-AD
Sasanian (a Persian dynasty) reference to "Abgan." (and that was only
for Pashtuns) The earliest Muslim reference to the Afghans probably
dates to AD 982, but tribes related to the modern Afghans have lived in
the region for many generations.
History also said the Pashtuns have been living in Afghanestan about
5000 years ago and at that time prophet Mohammad wasn#039;t yet born!
So AFGHAN, as Najeeb said by himself means PASHTUN and all the people of Afghanistan.
Islamic armies defeated the Sasanians in AD 642 at Nahavand (near modern
Hamadan, Iran) and moved on to the Afghan area, but they were unable to
hold the territory; cities submitted, only to rise in revolt, and the
hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies had
passed. The 9th and 10th centuries witnessed the rise of numerous local
Islamic dynasties. One of the earliest was the "Tahirids" of "KHORASSAN"
whose kingdom included Balkh and Herat. they established virtual
independence from the #039;Abbasid caliphate in AD 820. The Tahirids were
succeeded in 867-869 by a native dynasty from Seistan, the Saffarids.
Local princes in the north soon became feudatories of the powerful
Samanids, who ruled from Bukhara. From 872 to 999 Bukhara, Samarkand,
and Balkh enjoyed a golden age under Samanid rule. sp Pashtuns were not
the first who became Moslem in Afghanestan [as they claim!!]
ABOUT THE FATHER OF PASHTUNS, AHMAD SHAH ABDALI:
Nader Qoli Beg took Herat in 1732 after a desperate siege. Impressed by
their courage, Nader recruited many Heratis to serve in his army. He was
elected shah of Persia, with the name Nader Shah, in 1736.
In 1738, after a year#039;s siege, the city of Qandahar fell to Nader Shah#039;s
army of 80,000 men. Nader Shah seized Ghazna and Kabul and occupied the
Mughal capital at Delhi in 1739. His booty included the Koh-i-noor
diamond and the Peacock Throne.
THE DURRANI DYNASTY [FIRST PASHTUN DYNASTY]
The commander of the Nadir Shah#039;s 4,000-man Afghan bodyguard was "Ahmad
Khan Abdali" who returned to Qandahar where he was elected king (shah)
by a tribal council. He adopted the title Durr-i Durran ("Pearl of
Pearls"). Supported by most tribal leaders, Ahmad Shah Durrani extended
Afghan control from Meshed to Kashmir and Delhi, from the Amu River to
the Arabian Sea. The Durrani was the "second greatest Muslim empire" in
the second half of the 18th century, surpassed in size only by the
Ottoman.Ahmad Shah died in 1772. That means the first Pashtun Empire was
working for an Aryan Empire then he became King!
â€About 6,500 Years ago, successive waves of people were migrating into
a land which is now called Iran and Khorassan which is now called
Afghanestan and northern Iraq. They called themselves the black-headed
(dark- haired) people. We know them as the Aryan/Sumerian, ancestors of
Iranians and the land in which they settled as the land of Sumer (Iran
Plateau).Aryans in prehistoric times settled in Central Asia, which
later around 2nd millennium BC, as isolated groups of people had
appeared in Iranian plateau. The word Aryan, for the first time was
mentioned in AVESTA (book of Zoroastrians)as the "AERYAN VAEJAH" (Land
of Nobles) as one of sixteen lands including, Khwarazmia, Soghdia,
Margiana, Balkh, Hilmand and etc (dated around 18th century BC).â€
As you can see there#039;s no Kandahar in this list!
This means the pashtuns didn#039;t exist at that time, 7000 years ago, the history of Pashtuns are about 4500 or 5000 years]
"Like it or not, Aryans of Afghanistan are Iranians, Iranian is the modern name for Aryans"
The Aryans/Sumerians established the first recognizable civilization
with a workable system of government. Their other achievements include
the invention of WHEELED VEHICLES and the use of written language. The
ancient Iranians developed the scientific practice of agriculture; on
the arts side, a distinctive style of architecture and a complex
religion which is reflected in their literature.
The Aryans of ancient Land of Aryans were Mazdayasni Zarathushtris, ie.
Worshippers of Ahura Mazda (the name of God in Avestan language i.e
Allah in Arabic mean God) as revealed by the ancient prophet
Zarathushtra (one of the 124000 prophets of God) thousands of years
The Arabic religion, Islam only began in Land of Aryans 1300 years ago.
The "Vendidad" is one of the ancient scriptures of the Zoroastrians,
actually called the "Vi-daevo-dat" or the law to fight against evil. In
the first "Fargad" or chapter, the Golden Age of the ancient Aryans is
outlined with their greatest king, "Yima Kshaeta" who banished old age
and death. Then, the ice age broke on the ancient home and the Aryans
were forced to migrate southwards, to the southeast and the southwest.
The Aryans migrated from the ancient home to Iran and from there to
India and Greece and Europe such as Germany, Italy, IRELAND (which also
mean land of Aryans).
The ancient Iranian Aryans believed that the world as created by Ahura
Mazda (God)was perfect, with no evil. The first man Gayo Maretan had no
disease, no illness, no hunger and thirst. Only the good creation of God
existed eg., the Dog, Cow and Bull, Horse,Birds etc. Then Ahriman the
evil one attacked the world and caused evil to appear, disease and
illness and old age, and the animals and the first man started to die.
Night began to fall (before the sun was at the noon position - fixed, so
there was no time). The evil brood of animals appeared eg. snakes,
insects, and the cat breed. So evil in the ancient faith is an external
introduction, which one day will be purged when the world will be bathed
with the purification of fire - the latter also found in old German
mythology. Paradise itself will be established on the earth, in the form
of the Kingdom of Ahura Mazda. The English word "paradise" itself stems
from the Avestan "PairiDaize", meaning the same. Also, the word
"garden" probably stems from the Avestan "Garod-man" meaning the House
of songs - the ancient name of heaven for the Aryans.
Today 60% of the people of the world are Aryans, in Europeans,
Americans, Indians, Greece, Iranians (Includes Aryans from Afghanestan)
and many more are all from Noble Race, Aryans, it#039;s Aryans who brought
civilisation to this world but it was religion which separate them, it
was religion which make them kill eachother and hate eachother, the
religion of Aryans, Zoroastrian, was the religion of brotherhood and
love. it came to Zoroaster by Angel Gabriel and it was the first
Religion of God in 7000 years ago. [Ali Reza]
ONE IMPORTANT COMMENT:
PASHTO US AN EAST IRANIAN LANGUAGE:[EAST IRAN=AVESTAN SPEAKERâ€™S REGION= PART OF ANCIENT KAMBOJA COUNTRY]
â€œâ€¦..The Afghan language, or Pashto, is one of the EAST IRANIAN
groups of languages. Among its characteristics, it contains a stratum of
Indian words (Sanskrit) and its phonetic system has been influenced by
Indian phonetic systems, which is not the case of other Iranian
(Source: Volume III, The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750.
Editor B.A. Litvinsky Co-editors Zhang Guang-da and R. Shabani
Samghabadi; Tokharistan and Gandhara under Western Türk rule
(650 - 750) Part One History of the regions (J. Harmatta) Part Two
Languages, literature, coinage, architecture and art (B. A. Litvinsky)
According to scholars, (Michael Witzel, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar, Rodney
Lingam etc) Avestan was the language of the east Iranians whom they
call the Kambojas.
According to Dr Michael Witzel, Avestan in the earlier times was the
language of the region where the Pashto is spoken today.
The modern Pashto language had also evolved from the Avestan language.
The Young Avestan was the language of the Iranian Kambojas i.e. the
Kambojas living in East Iranâ€¦the land of the Avestan speakers. [cf:
Michael Witzel: East Iran=Ancient Kamboja].
Concludes Dr Michael witzel: â€œIn short, my Siddhaanta is that the
Kambojas are an east Iranian people living in the Arachosia/Kandahar
area and that they spoke a form of later Avestan, long before Pashto
etc. took over in these areasâ€¦â€ [Dr. Michael Witzel, Harvard
According to Sir Grierson, a distinguished Indianist and linguistic
expert, â€œKambojas were a barbarous tribe of the north-west who
either spoke Sanskrit with an infusion of Iranian words to which they
gave Indian Inflexions or also spoke a language partly Indo-Aryan and
partly Iranianâ€ (J.R.A.S. 1911, pp 801-802: See also ancient
evidence/documentation from Yasaka (Nirukuta II.2)
â€œâ€¦â€¦â€¦. and they (Kambojas) spoke a language which was either half
Indian and half Iranian or any how had an infusion of Iranian words.â€
(The Greeks in Bacteria and India, 1966, Pp 170, 138 by W.W. Tarn).
â€œYaska in the Nirukta, a text of about 500 B.C. explaining with
illustrations certain selected Vedic words, tells us that the speech of
the Kambojas differed in certain respects from the ordinary Indian
speech, referring doubtless to the tribes living north-west of the Indus
who bore that name.â€ [Ref: Extension of the Aryan Civilisation; later
Samhitas, Brahmanas, p 104, ch V, p 104)
â€œSeveral European scholars have suggested that the Kamboja people
were a MIXED TRIBE HAVING ETHNIC, LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL AFFINITIES
shared both with the IRANIANS AND INDIANS PEOPLE. (ref: Afghanistan, its
people, its Society, its culture, by Dr Donald Wilber 1962, p 50;
Afghanistan, Study of Political Developments in Central and Southern
Asia, 1967, p 58, by Dr W. K. Fraser Tytler, Dr M. C. Gillet, cf: Dr
Serge Thion etc etc).
â€œKambojas probably had both Iranian and Indian affinitiesâ€. (Vedic
Index of Names and Subjects Vol-I, p 138, by Dr A. A. Mcdonnel, Dr. A.
There are approximately 23 million Pashto-speakers in Afghanistan and Pakistan today[ . Morgenstierne, 1942; Gryunberg, 1987]