از آرشیڤ: سیف الله فضل
|About minaret of Jam
The Minaret at Jam stands alone in a remote valley surrounded by barren mountains. The Hari Rud river flows rapidly by the lonely tower, which was once surrounded by a great mosque at Firuz Koh. Built in the 12th century, it is the only well-preserved monument from the Ghorid period. It measures 65 meters (213 feet) tall and is accessable through a set of double sprial stairs that run from the octagonal base to the circular top. The tower is decorated with kufic calligraphy etched in stucco and accented with turquoise ceremics. Along the shaft are several balconies and at the top is a large lantern.
The minaret was heavily damaged during the Soviet incursion and the Afghan civil war. It was probably not
The Minaret of Jam and Qasr Zarafshan, August 2005
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in western Afghanistan. It is located in the Shahrak District, Ghowr Province, by the Hari Rud river. The 65 metre high minaret, surrounded by mountains that reach up to 2400 meters, is built entirely of baked-bricks. It is famous for its intricate brick, stucco and glazed tile decoration, which consists of alternating bands of kufic and nashki calligraphy, geometric patterns, and verses from the Qur'an (the surat Maryam, relating to Mary, the mother of Jesus).
For centuries, the Minaret was forgotten about by the outside world, until it was re-discovered in 1886, by Holdich, working for the Afghan Boundary Commission. It did not come to world attention, however, until 1957 through the work of the French archaeologists André Maricq and Wiet. Herberg conducted limited surveys around the site in the 1970s, before the Soviet invasion of 1979 once again cut it off for the outside world.
The archaeological site of Jam was successfully nominated as Afghanistan's first World Heritage site in 2002. It was also inscribed in UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in Danger, due to the precarious state of preservation of the minaret, and results of looting at the site. Minaret of Jam
Decorated exterior of the Minaret of Jam, August 2005
The circular minaret rests on an octagonal base; it had 2 wooden balconies and was topped by a lantern. It is thought to have been a direct inspiration for the Qutub Minar in Delhi, which was also built by the Ghurids. After the Qutub Minar, the Minaret of Jam is the second-tallest brick minaret in the world.
The Minaret of Jam belongs to a group of around 60 minarets and towers built between the 11th and the 13th centuries in Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan, eg. the tower at Ghazni. The minarets are thought to have been built as symbols of Islam's victory, while other towers were simply landmarks or watchtowers.
The minaret of Jam is currently threatened by erosion, water infiltration and floods, due to its proximity to the Hari Rud and Jam Rud rivers. Another threat are the earthquakes which happen frequently in the region. Looters and illegal excavations have also damaged the archaeological site surrounding the minaret. The tower has started to lean, but stabilisation work is in progress to halt this danger.
The archaeological landscape around Jam also includes the ruins of a 'palace', fortifications, a pottery kiln and a Jewish cemetery
The Minaret of Jam is probably located at the site of the Ghurid dynasty's summer capital, Firuzkuh (Firuz Koh). The 12th and 13th century Ghurids controlled not only Afghanistan, but also parts of eastern Iran, Northern India and parts of Pakistan.
The Arabic inscription dating the minaret is unclear - it could read 1193/4 or, more likely, 1174/5. It could thus commemorate the victory of the Ghurid sultan Ghiyas ud-Din over the Ghaznevids in 1192 in Delhi, or the defeat of the Ghuzz Turks at Ghazna in 1173. The assumption is that the Minaret was attached to the Friday Mosque of Firuzkuh, which the Ghurid chronicler Juzjani states was washed away in a flash-flood, some time before the Mongol sieges. Work at Jam by the Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project, has found evidence of a large courtyard building beside the minaret, and evidence of river sediments on top of the baked-brick paving.
The Ghurid Empire's glory waned after the death of Ghiyath ud-Din in 1202, as it was forced to cede territory to the Khorezm Empire. Juzjani states that Firuzkuh was destroyed by the Mongols in 1222.
Three Routes to Jam
1) From Chakhcharan, via Ghar-i-Payon
113 km; 71 mi.
2) From Shahrak (Chapter 32)
66 km; 41 mi.
3) From Herat, via Kamenj
313 km; 196 mi.
Jam: camping facilities.
Shahrak: ATO tents; meteorological station; chaikhana.
Obey: Hotel, good
Jam: Chaikhana in village.
Obey: Hotel, on request with considerable advance notice.
Please be advised that all information on the routes to the “minaret” is subject to change — drastic change. On reading the description of route 1) via Ghar-i-Payon, it will be obvious that weather and maintenance are crucial to its use. Weather can cause the routes from Shahrak and Kamenj to be closed as well. Up-to-date information from the Afghan Tourist Organization in Kabul or Herat, or the authorities m Chakhcharan or Shahrak should therefore be sought before embarking on this particular adventure. Proposals to repair the bridges at Jam and outside Chist were under active consideration in 1976.
The “hotel” which was built at the foot of the “minaret” has no beds or bedding, food or cooking facilities. It simply offers shelter and you will need all your own equipment. Food is available, however, in the village of Jam.
1) To Jam from Chakhcharan via Ghar-i-Payon: 113 km; 71 mi; 4½ hrs.
This new road was begun under the Food for Work Programme after serious drought hit this area in 1971. Under this scheme of the World Food Programme, an international organization jointly sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), workers are paid scarce food commodities in return for roadwork which was still in progress in 1975.
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