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The Origin Of The Name Afghan


1. Arrian writes them Assakenois. Strabo also calls them Assakanois, but Curtius calls them Assacani.


2. The name Afghan has evidently been derived from Asvakan, the Assakenoi of Arrian... (Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180; see also: Alexander's Invasion of India, p 38; J. W. McCrindle)


3. This includes S. Martin, L. Bishop, W. Crooke, J. C. Vidyalnar, Dr M. R. Singh, P. Smith, N. L. Dey, Henry Yule, A. C. Burnell, Dr J. L. Kamboj, S. Kirpal Singh and several others. cf: “The name represents Sanskrit Asvaka in the sense of a cavalier, and this reappears scarcely modified in the Assakani or Assakeni of the historians of the expedition of Alexander” (Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological..by Henry Yule, A. C. Burnell).


4. Ashtadhyayi, Nadadi gana IV-1, 99


5. Ashtadhyayi Sutra IV-1, 110


6. History and Culture of Indian People, the Age of Imperial Unity, Vol II, p 45, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr Munshi etc; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; See also: History of Porus, pp 12, 38; Ancient India, 2003, pp 260-61, Dr V. D. Mahajan; India as Known to Panini, pp 456-57, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Preliminary Notes on the Excavation of the Necropolises found in Western Pakistan and The Tombs of the Asvakayana-Assakenoi, Antonini, Chiara Silvi Tucci, Giuseppe, pp 13 to 28; 'Asvakayana-Assakenoi', East and West, NS,. 14 (Roma, t963), pp 27-28.


7. Kambojo assa.nam ayata.nam i.e Kamboja the birthplace of horse......(|| Samangalavilasini, Vol I, p 124||).


8. Aruppa-Niddesa of Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa describes the Kamboja land as the base of horses (10/28)


9. In the Anushasnaparava section of Mahabharata, the Kambojas are specifically designated as Ashava.yuddha.kushalah (expert cavalrymen).tatha Yavana Kamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye |ete 'ashava.yuddha.kushalahdasinatyasi charminah. || 5 ||


10. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, (Also Commentary p 576 fn 22), Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p110, Dr E. Lammotte; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash. J. W. McCrindle says that the modern Afghanistan -- the Kaofu (Kambu) of Hiun Tsang was ancient Kamboja, and the name Afghan evidently derives from the Ashavakan, the Assakenoi of Arrian (Alexandra's Invasion of India, p 38; Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180, J. McCrindle); Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi; Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S Kirpal Singh; Sir Thomas H. Holdich, in the his classic book, (The Gates of India, p 102-03), writes that the Aspasians (Aspasios) represent the modern Kafirs. But the modern Kafirs, especially the Siah-Posh Kafirs (Kamoz/Camoje, Kamtoz) etc are considered to be modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas. Other noted scholars supporting this view are Dr Romilla Thapar, Dr R. C. Majumdar etc. The Invasion Of India By Alexander The Great As Described By Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch And Justin, Dr J. W. McCrindle.


11. Other scholars like Dr N. K. Shastri, Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Dr J. L. Kamboj and many others also hold the same view.


12. Ch.M. Kieffer, "Afghan" (with ref. to "Afghanistan: iv. Ethnography"), in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition 2006, (LINK)


13. extract from "Passion of the Afghan" by Khushal Khan Khattak; translated by C. Biddulph in "Afghan Poetry Of The 17th Century: Selections from the Poems of Khushal Khan Khattak", London, 1890


14. Zahir ud-Din Mohammad Babur in Baburnama, "Transactions of the year 908", translated by John Leyden, Oxford University Press 1921 (LINK)


15. M. Longworth Dames/G. Morgenstierne/R. Ghirshman, "Afghanistan", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition MECW Volume 18, p. 40; The New American Cyclopaedia - Vol. I, 1858;...Link


16. CIA World Factbook - Afghanistan...Link


17. Encyclopaedia Britannica - Ahmad Shah Durrani...Link


18. Nancy Hatch Dupree - An Historical Guide To Afghanistan - The South (Chapter 16)...Link


19. Columbia Encyclopedia - Afghanistan: History...Link


20. History Of Nations - History of Afghanistan...Link


21. Afghanistan Online - Biography (Ahmad Shah Abdali)...Link


22. Britannica Student Encyclopedia - Government and History (from Afghanistan)...Link


23. Elphinstone, M., "Account of the Kingdom of Cabul and its Dependencies in Persia and India", London 1815; published by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme Brown


24. M. Ali, "Afghanistan: The War of Independence, 1919", Kabul [s.n.], 1960


25. Afghanistan's Constitution of 1923, under King Amanullah Khan, English translation...Link


26. A.A. Dehkhoda, Dehkhoda Dictionary, p. 8457


27. Gankovsky, Yu. V., et al "A History of Afghanistan." Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982. 8vo. Cloth. 359 p. USD 22.50

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